I. Выучите новую лексику урока:
pit n 1. яма, углубление; beneficial а выгодный, прибыльный
2.шахта, карьер avoid v избегать, избежать
tip n конец, край, оконечность priority n преимущество
extraction n извлечение, добыча constraint я принуждение,
ensure v обеспечить стеснение; нужда
II. Прочтите и переведите текст:
Intensification of Land Uses
and technological progress in the use of natural resources can be summarized in
one word-intensification. Higher production can come from the more intensive
use of lands currently in use as well as from development of new land areas.
of land yield a higher and higher total produc tion with increasing inputs of
capital and labour per unit of land. It is particularly true in periods when
new technologi cal developments can be used to increase production and to
reduce costs. For example, today large, expensive and complicated machines
permit removal of vast quantities of land in a short time. The mines are either
deep pits or open excavations, and there are large tips of waste deposited on
the surface. Large acreages of prime farm land are often taken for
Let us take
for example mineral extraction industries. Of all of them mining is the one
which has given rise to the greatest amount of derelict land. Apart from tips
and holes there is the wasteland left behind by open excavations.
Land Use Control is to ensure that the inten sification of land uses,
particularly the mineral working and other extraction industries, may avoid
interference with farm land uses. The land use planners responsible for after-use
of derelict land should ensure wherever possible land reclamation and farm
after-use. Land used for mineral working must not be abandoned and left
derelict when the working is finished. It must be restored or otherwise treated
with a view to bring-ing it back into some form of beneficial use.
management usually is considered to include ap praisal of alternative treatment
relative to the use of land for specific purposes, selection of practices to be
used, and di rection of the use of desired practices.
determining the alternative after-uses, it is essential that as much
information as possible be obtained about the land in question. The land use
planners must use the existing know-how to effective land use to facilitate new
and improved after-uses.
III. Прочтите и переведите текст:
Text B. The
After-Use of Restored Land
industrial production must not damage the land resources and increase the
amount of waste land. Considerable areas of dereliction are being reclaimed
each year. The after-use of the restored land resources is to be tackled by
land use planners. This work is being done very efficiently by special ists of
irrigation and land reclamation.
possible to restore the derelict land to a new use or to a more appropriate
land use. The land sometimes is restored to its former condition and may be
used as it has been used before dereliction. The agricultural production should
gain the priorities among other uses. Return to agriculture may mean a lower
grade of land and lower productivity or change from arable to grazing land.
Local land use deficiencies and the site constraints should be taken into
consideration. If the land was originally poor, badly drained, suffering from
exhaustion it may be possible to improve the site by addition al restoration
working. The efficiency of the land parcel may be improved. The field size may
be enlarged or rationalized, the boundaries of the land parcel planted with
hedges and shelterbelts.
use planner usually selects species to suit the soil and climatic conditions.
Forestry is a safe return on the poorer soils and in upland districts. The site
survey and ana lysis to be used may be useful for selecting the species to suit
the restored land resources.
techniques for site survey and analysis are used for land use planning of
restored areas. But there are special characteristics of derelict land which
raise difficult problems of after-use. They need identifying at an early stage
of land use planning.
The type of
questions that need an answer are the follow ing: Are the levels such that the
site can be used for agricul ture without major earthmoving? Are the grades so
steep that erosion would prevent planting into present surfaces? Do the levels
indicate that the natural drainage pattern of the area has been destroyed?
and vegetation as well as the previous land use are also the questions that
need answers: Is there any soil left on the site? Is there any vegetation on
the site? Is the site colonized by grass on "weed" invasion? If there
is no vegetation the land use planner is to consid er whether this is due to
lack of soil or some other reason, such as toxic chemicals left in the ground.
In this case lab-oratory tests may be necessary.
use planner must know everything about the his tory of the site. It is possible
that the previous use was a form of mining so that drifts, shafts and
subsidence risks exist on the site. The previous use could be a smelting or
chem ical process such that toxic substances might be left in the ground.
VII. Определите без словаря значения следующих
progress; higher production; open excava tions; extraction industry; selection
of practices; government reclamation agency; lower productivity; soil and
climatic conditions; methods of stabilization of slopes
VIII. Найдите причастия прошедшего времени и определите их
1. All the
progress in the use of natural resources can be summarized in one word:
intensification. 2. Large compli cated machines permit removal of great
quantities of land in a short time. 3. There are large tips of waste deposited
on the surface. 4. Considerable areas of dereliction are being reclaimed each
year. 5. The field size may be enlarged or ra tionalized, the boundaries of the
land parcel planted with hedges and shelterbelts. 6. The general techniques for
site survey and analysis are used for land use planning of restored areas. 7.
There are detailed methods of stabilization of slopes against possible slip. 8.
Soil which is stripped and stacked also deteriorates rapidly.
iX. Закончите предложения, используя текст В:
resources must not be damaged by... . 2. Each year considerable areas of
dereliction are... . 3. It is possible to improve the site by... . 4. The land
use planner usually selects species to... . 5. Forestry is a safe return on the
poorer soils and in... . 6. The general techniques for site survey and analysis
are used for... . 7. Are the levels such that the site can be used for agriculture
X. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и
of land uses; inputs of capital; to reduce costs; mining; wasteland; land
reclamation; grazing land; to enlarge; shelterbelt; weed
XI. Образуйте причастия прошедшего времени от следующих
глаголов. Переведите их на русский язык. Употребите 3-4 причастия в пред
to use, to
reduce, to remove, to permit, to extract, to en sure, to avoid, to restore, to
return, to exhaust, to prevent, to take, to include, to obtain
XII. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова. Переведите
предложения на русский язык:
1. You can
get higher production from the more ... use of lands currently in use as well
as from ... of new areas. 2. Today large expensive complicated machines permit
... of vast quantities of land in a short time. 3. Large acreages of prime ...
are often taken for non-agricultural uses. 4. Of all mineral extraction
industries ... is the one which has given rise to the greatest amount of
derelict land. 5. Land use for mineral working must not be abandoned and left
... when (he working is finished. 6. The industrial production must not damage
the land resources and increase the amount of ... land. 7. It is possible ...
the derelict land to a new use or to a more appropriate land use. 8. The
agricultural produc tion should gain ... among other uses.
с русского языка на английский;
1. Каждый год значительное количество нарушенных земель
улучшается и возвращается в сельскохозяйственное производство. 2. Земля может
быть восстановлена до ее прежнего состояния и вновь использоваться для сельско
хозяйственных целей. 3. Существуют некоторые общие проблемы восстановления и
XIV. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделенные
слова. Переведите предложения на
technological progress in the use of land resources is intensification. 2. More
intensive use of lands will result in higher production. 3. Intensifying the
use of lands we face some environmental problems. 4. With increasing inputs of
capital and labour per unit of land we usually get more pro-duction from this
unit of land. 5. Our task now is to increase production and to reduce costs. 6.
Mining is the factor which has given rise to the greatest amount of derelict land.
7. This land has been restored and can be used as it was used before