Четверг, 17.08.2017
Меню сайта
Наш опрос
Помог ли наш сайт найти нужную Вам информацию???
Всего ответов: 155
Поиск по Тэгам:)
Основы экономической теории производство биржа общество наука экономика деньги предложение цены капитал развитие доход прибыль труд цена товар благо Количество бизнес риск рост бюджет собственность функции издержки продукция государство рынок Виды предприниматель деятельность организация страна гараж парковка гостевой дом сад детская площадка пляж Картография кусты деревья дороги дача забор дерево Баня кустарник живая изгородь почва природа ландшафтоведение морфологическая структура классификация масштаб ландшафт геосистема свойства Власть карта участок камень дверь ступеньки озеленения участка вынесения зона отдыха кустарники бассейн дорога вход дом огород озеленения территории условные обозначения газон экспликация беседка озеленения дачного участка цветник права закон президент раздел Верховная Рада кадастр Земля право система выборы голос украина статья Кодекс система координат отрасль предприятие 6зем ДЗК землеустройство
Статистика
Яндекс.Метрика
Главная » Файлы » Английский язык » Уроки

LESSON 15. THE DERELICT LAND PROBLEM
Скачать с сервера ()  ·  28.08.2010, 23:39

I. Выучите новую лексику урока:

pit n 1. яма, углубление; beneficial а выгодный, прибыльный

2.шахта, карьер avoid v избегать, избежать

tip n конец, край, оконечность priority n преимущество

extraction n извлечение, добыча constraint я принуждение,

ensure v обеспечить стеснение; нужда

 

II. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text A. Intensification of Land Uses

Scientific and technological progress in the use of natural resources can be summarized in one word-intensification. Higher production can come from the more intensive use of lands currently in use as well as from development of new land areas.

Most types of land yield a higher and higher total produc tion with increasing inputs of capital and labour per unit of land. It is particularly true in periods when new technologi cal developments can be used to increase production and to reduce costs. For example, today large, expensive and complicated machines permit removal of vast quantities of land in a short time. The mines are either deep pits or open excavations, and there are large tips of waste deposited on the surface. Large acreages of prime farm land are often taken for non-agricultural uses.

Let us take for example mineral extraction industries. Of all of them mining is the one which has given rise to the greatest amount of derelict land. Apart from tips and holes there is the wasteland left behind by open excavations.

The State Land Use Control is to ensure that the inten sification of land uses, particularly the mineral working and other extraction industries, may avoid interference with farm land uses. The land use planners responsible for after-use of derelict land should ensure wherever possible land reclamation and farm after-use. Land used for mineral working must not be abandoned and left derelict when the working is finished. It must be restored or otherwise treated with a view to bring-ing it back into some form of beneficial use.

Land management usually is considered to include ap praisal of alternative treatment relative to the use of land for specific purposes, selection of practices to be used, and di rection of the use of desired practices.

In determining the alternative after-uses, it is essential that as much information as possible be obtained about the land in question. The land use planners must use the existing know-how to effective land use to facilitate new and improved after-uses.

III. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text B. The After-Use of Restored Land

The industrial production must not damage the land resources and increase the amount of waste land. Considerable areas of dereliction are being reclaimed each year. The after-use of the restored land resources is to be tackled by land use planners. This work is being done very efficiently by special ists of irrigation and land reclamation.

It is possible to restore the derelict land to a new use or to a more appropriate land use. The land sometimes is restored to its former condition and may be used as it has been used before dereliction. The agricultural production should gain the priorities among other uses. Return to agriculture may mean a lower grade of land and lower productivity or change from arable to grazing land. Local land use deficiencies and the site constraints should be taken into consideration. If the land was originally poor, badly drained, suffering from exhaustion it may be possible to improve the site by addition al restoration working. The efficiency of the land parcel may be improved. The field size may be enlarged or rationalized, the boundaries of the land parcel planted with hedges and shelterbelts.

The land use planner usually selects species to suit the soil and climatic conditions. Forestry is a safe return on the poorer soils and in upland districts. The site survey and ana lysis to be used may be useful for selecting the species to suit the restored land resources.

The general techniques for site survey and analysis are used for land use planning of restored areas. But there are special characteristics of derelict land which raise difficult problems of after-use. They need identifying at an early stage of land use planning.

The type of questions that need an answer are the follow ing: Are the levels such that the site can be used for agricul ture without major earthmoving? Are the grades so steep that erosion would prevent planting into present surfaces? Do the levels indicate that the natural drainage pattern of the area has been destroyed?

The soil and vegetation as well as the previous land use are also the questions that need answers: Is there any soil left on the site? Is there any vegetation on the site? Is the site colonized by grass on "weed" invasion? If there is no vegetation the land use planner is to consid er whether this is due to lack of soil or some other reason, such as toxic chemicals left in the ground. In this case lab-oratory tests may be necessary.

The land use planner must know everything about the his tory of the site. It is possible that the previous use was a form of mining so that drifts, shafts and subsidence risks exist on the site. The previous use could be a smelting or chem ical process such that toxic substances might be left in the ground.

VII. Определите без словаря значения следующих словосочетаний;

technological progress; higher production; open excava tions; extraction industry; selection of practices; government reclamation agency; lower productivity; soil and climatic conditions; methods of stabilization of slopes

 

VIII. Найдите причастия прошедшего времени и определите их функции:

1. All the progress in the use of natural resources can be summarized in one word: intensification. 2. Large compli cated machines permit removal of great quantities of land in a short time. 3. There are large tips of waste deposited on the surface. 4. Considerable areas of dereliction are being reclaimed each year. 5. The field size may be enlarged or ra tionalized, the boundaries of the land parcel planted with hedges and shelterbelts. 6. The general techniques for site survey and analysis are used for land use planning of restored areas. 7. There are detailed methods of stabilization of slopes against possible slip. 8. Soil which is stripped and stacked also deteriorates rapidly.

 

iX. Закончите предложения, используя текст В:

1. Land resources must not be damaged by... . 2. Each year considerable areas of dereliction are... . 3. It is possible to improve the site by... . 4. The land use planner usually selects species to... . 5. Forestry is a safe return on the poorer soils and in... . 6. The general techniques for site survey and analysis are used for... . 7. Are the levels such that the site can be used for agriculture without... ?

 

X. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

intensification of land uses; inputs of capital; to reduce costs; mining; wasteland; land reclamation; grazing land; to enlarge; shelterbelt; weed

 

XI. Образуйте причастия прошедшего времени от следующих глаголов. Переведите их на русский язык. Употребите 3-4 причастия в пред ложениях:

to use, to reduce, to remove, to permit, to extract, to en sure, to avoid, to restore, to return, to exhaust, to prevent, to take, to include, to obtain

 

XII. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. You can get higher production from the more ... use of lands currently in use as well as from ... of new areas. 2. Today large expensive complicated machines permit ... of vast quantities of land in a short time. 3. Large acreages of prime ... are often taken for non-agricultural uses. 4. Of all mineral extraction industries ... is the one which has given rise to the greatest amount of derelict land. 5. Land use for mineral working must not be abandoned and left ... when (he working is finished. 6. The industrial production must not damage the land resources and increase the amount of ... land. 7. It is possible ... the derelict land to a new use or to a more appropriate land use. 8. The agricultural produc tion should gain ... among other uses.

XIII. Переведите с русского языка на английский;

1. Каждый год значительное количество нарушенных земель улучшается и возвращается в сельскохозяйственное производство. 2. Земля может быть восстановлена до ее прежнего состояния и вновь использоваться для сельско хозяйственных целей. 3. Существуют некоторые общие проблемы восстановления и улучшения земель.

XIV. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделенные слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1.       The technological progress in the use of land resources is intensification. 2. More intensive use of lands will result in higher production. 3. Intensifying the use of lands we face some environmental problems. 4. With increasing inputs of capital and labour per unit of land we usually get more pro-duction from this unit of land. 5. Our task now is to increase production and to reduce costs. 6. Mining is the factor which has given rise to the greatest amount of derelict land. 7. This land has been restored and can be used as it was used before dereliction.

Категория: Уроки | Добавил: Admin
Просмотров: 605 | Загрузок: 2 | Рейтинг: 0.0/0
Всего комментариев: 0
Добавлять комментарии могут только зарегистрированные пользователи.
[ Регистрация | Вход ]
Дисциплины
Уроки [12]
Переводы [0]
Методички [1]
Мини Чат
200
Ссылки
Copyright MyCorp © 2017
Сделать бесплатный сайт с uCoz