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LESSON 9. AGRICULTURAL PLANNING
Скачать с сервера ()  ·  28.08.2010, 22:29

LESSON 9. AGRICULTURAL PLANNING

I. Выучите новую лексику урока:

sound а разумный, рациональный comprehensive а общий,

goal n цель всеобъемлющий

consumer n потребитель involve v вовлекать, заключать

innovation n нововведение embrace v охватывать

extensive а экстенсивный; execution n выполнение,

обширный исполнение

integrate а составной; полный, represent v представлять

целый preliminary а предварительный

market situation условия рынка delineate v описывать; изображать

 

II. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text A. Long-Term Agricultural Planning

The cadastral surveys of land resources provide information for full, sound and proper land uses. Soil investigation, land classification, evaluation, and registration are needed for many purposes. But above all they are necessary for land use planning which is the State measure to secure the most effective land uses.

Agriculture is planned within the entire system of the national economy, through the interconnection of all its sectors. However, agriculture holds a special place in the system of economic sectors, primarily because it is the main supplier of food for the population and of raw materials for the production of consumer goods.

Agricultural planning is organized on the basis of state plans. An important innovation is the extensive use of integrated long-term scientific, techno logical, economic and social purpose-oriented programmes. This planning helps in forecasting the goals and the basic changes in agricultural production. It includes the future changes in the energy used for agriculture, in the sciences and technology, in the demand and market situation, etc.

Agricultural planning must be based above all on the cadastral surveys of land resources. Our wealth of farmland is to provide the basis for agricultural development. Agricul ture and the related branches need an estimated quantity of land resources to produce food of specified quality.

The prime goal of long-term agricultural planning is to balance the progress of all the sectors of food-stuff production.

III. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text B. Land Use Planning Process

Modern land use planning for agriculture and related branches of agro-industrial complex needs a comprehensive approach to land resources. The land use decisions involve far-reaching social, physical, economic and environmental interactions. They should be made therefore with the assist ance of a sound land use planning process.

The land use planners who work for State land use planning institutes are to develop the designs of land uses for agricul tural enterprises, which take part in the planning process. All planning, be it urban or rural, embraces a series of im portant steps. These steps normally involve: 1. determination of objectives to be sought; 2. formation of the plan to be followed; and 3. execution of the plan.

The prime concern of land use planners is to determine accurately existing conditions and make the analysis of rele vant information. Because land use planning requires a wide range of information a study group may be organized representing sciences which deal with soils, ecology, econom ics, hydrology, forestry and land use planning. The com position of such groups naturally depends on the particular land use situation under consideration.

The study group may also make preliminary studies of a more general character to appraise data needs and collection methodology. It may be engaged in inventory techniques to gather the data needed.

The next step is to develop and evaluate alternative plans to reach the desired future needs. The cadastral surveys are of crucial importance now. The data resulting from careful inventory operations are necessary to provide estimates of future needs. The forecasts must be based on sound cadastral surveys and on the analysis of the particular situation under consideration. The geographic areas must be definitely de lineated on accurate base maps.

The selection and adoption of alternative plans as well as implementation of the best among the available are the final steps of land use planning process.

Recognition should be given to large technical improve ment in the collection storage and retrieval of data made possible by great advances in computer technology and re lated analytical techniques. Data banks and model building are being increasingly applied in land use planning. Comput ers are making an appearance in several aspects and will have still wider application. The computing techniques must have much place in land use planning process. The land use planners are to become aware of the enormous scope and benefits that computers can offer as well as of their limitations. Wide application of computing techniques is of crucial im portance in land use planning process.

IV. Определите без словаря значения следующих словосочетаний:

most effective land use; national economy; special plan; system of economic sectors; agricultural planning; agricultural development; long-term purpose-oriented prog ramme; data bank

V. Употребите глагол, стоящий в скобках, в нужной форме:

1. Information for full, sound and proper land uses (to provide) by cadastral surveys. 2. Agricultural land uses (to plan) within the entire system of the national economy. 3. Agricultural planning (to organize) on the basis of state plans. 4. The best uses of land in agriculture and related branches (to provide) by effective land use planning. 5. The designs of land use development (to make) by the land use planning engineers. 6. Far-reaching social, physical, economic and environmental interactions (to involve) in making the land-use decision. 7. Study groups (to organize) so that they represent sciences which deal with soils, ecology, economics, hydrology, forestry and land use planning.

VI. Закончите следующие предложения, используя текст B:

1. A comprehensive approach to land resources is necessary in modern... . 2. The designs of land uses are developed by... . 3. Our land use planning specialists work in... .4. Accurate determination of existing conditions is taken into consider ation by... . 5. Land use planning requires a wide range of... . 6. The composition of study groups depends on... . 7. Computers will be widely... .

 

VII. Переделайте данные предложения, употребив глаголы-сказуемые в форме страдательного залога:

1.The cadastral surveys of agricultural lands give necessa ry information for proper use of land. 2.Land use planners need much information for their projects. 3. We plan the agricultural land uses in accordance with the entire system of the national economy. 4. Agriculture supplies people with food and raw materials. 5. We organize our agricultural planning on the basis of state plans. 6. The land use decision takes into consideration different factors of economy and environment. 7. Modern computers provide much necessary information.

 

VIII. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Land use planners need cadastral surveys for full ... and proper land uses. 2. Land use planning is the State ... to secure the most effective land uses. 3. Agriculture is the main ... of food for population. 4. Long-term planning helps in forecasting the goals and the basic ... in agricultural prod uction. 5. Modern ... planning is based on cadastral surveys of land resources. 6. Land use planning requires a wide ... of information. 7. Some land use planners must ... the designs of land uses.

 

IX. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

1.Кадастровая съемка обеспечивает землеустроителей информацией, необходимой для полного, рационального и эффективного использования земель. 2. Сельскохозяйст венное планирование проводится на основе государствен ных планов. 3. Для составления землеустро ительного проекта требуется большое количество разнооб разной информации. 4. B землеустройстве широко приме няется математическое моделирование и другие современ-ные методы обработки данных.

 

X. Запишите от данных глаголов форму причастия прошедшего времени:

to be, to provide, to need, to take, to organize, to help, to include, to demand, to give

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