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LESSON 11. LOCATION PROBLEMS OF INTERNAL LAND USE PLANNING
Скачать с сервера ()  ·  29.08.2010, 00:04

I. Выучите новую лексику урока:

distribution n распределение permanently adv неизменно,

throughout prep повсюду постоянно

storage п 1. хранилище; verge v приближаться

2. хранение solution n решение

trend n направление, тенденция comparative а сравнительный

adopt v принимать favourable а благоприятный

silo n силос; а силосный main n магистраль

consistent а последовательный sewer n сточная труба

II. Прочтите и переведите текст :

Text А. Internal Land Use Planning and Modern Farming

Internal land use planning deals with agricultural enter prises. It encompasses the location of living areas and produc tion units, the size and shape of field patterns, etc. The plan ners should be aware of modern progress of agricultural sci ence and technology.

The progress of agricultural science and technology has taken many forms. Firstly, electrical power distribution can be seen throughout the countryside. This made practical in tensive cropping, crop storage and livestock housing. Farm production is improved with better stock genetics, seeds, and fertilizers.

Internal land use planning takes into consideration modern trends in farm management, especially the development of regional agro-industrial complexes. With the changes in cul tivation and harvesting equipment many state and collective farms have adopted the management techniques used in in dustry. The latest achievements in science and technology of farm ing include new modern developments in specialized farm building units. For example, central grain silo units, to which several thousand hectares may be contracted have become common in many rural areas.

Internal land use planning deals with modern development of science and technology in all various fields of agriculture. Intensive livestock housing, for example, has been a consis tent trend in many parts of our country. It seems probable that a situation will prevail when nearly all farm stock are housed permanently for the greater part of their lives. The modern tractor, with its capacity to handle a multitude of different cultivation and materials handling equip ment, requires that modern fieldwork should be based on large units.

Consideration of future field machinery techniques verges towards science fiction. It seems probable that within twen ty years remote-controlled fieldwork will be the norm. There is no technical reason why this should not be so. It is difficult to forecast which technique is likely to prove the most effi cient and viable.

But, in any event, there are still more implications for interfarm land use planning. Automated fieldwork will make streamlined field pattern more essential. It is desirable to plan the field patterns and operations for more efficient and mechanized agriculture.

The interfarm land use planning is to meet the new require ments of technological progress in agriculture. Solution of these growing problems can be achieved on the basis of computerization of the land use planning process.

III. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text В. Location of Living Areas of Agricultural Enterprise

In our country the living conditions of collective and state farmers are being constantly improved. Modern residential developments, can be seen throughout the countryside in all parts of the country. Location of new residential develop ments is of crucial importance. It is an important part of internal land use planning.

A modern agricultural enterprise needs an adequate living area. Much study is necessary to provide optimum living conditions of those who live in rural areas.

Each master plan should have maps that show a desirable scheme of land use, including areas of production units, field patterns, communications system, etc. Consideration should be given to the impact of different location factors that in fluence a particular living area. Certain comparative advan tages may stem from natural advantages such as favourable climate, soils and topography.

People who are to live in the community will need more jobs, attractive homes, land for farming and gardening, and areas for rest and play. Determining the areas in a community that are most suitable requires study. A growing community also needs new roads and streets, schools, public buildings, water mains, sewers, and other public facilities. Where should the proposed public improve ments be located? Locations might be selected with a view to making the fullest use of present and proposed facilities. The location of public buildings, roads and other facili ties will influence land uses. Small industrial enterprises in the living area become common with some old and new rural developments.

Attractions associated with various local amenities provide a comparative advantage. Amenity considerations are sometimes ignored when significant economic advantages are as-sociated with particular sites. Ready access to municipal roads and to motorways is important. The living area should not be located too far from the local road. Labor efficiency may be increased by making the distance between the most fre quently used areas and the home as short as possible. Much attention is paid now to the requirements of modern rural family living zone. Some land use planners consider that it should have a house, a garage, recreation area, a garden, an orchard, a small animal building.

The location of residential areas is to provide the best conditions for those who work at the agricultural enterprise and in related branches of agriculture.

IV. Определите без словаря значения следующих словосочетаний:

living areas; production units; field pattern; electric pow er; livestock housing; management techniques; specialized farm building units; farm stock; modern tractor; farmstead machinery; modern machine size; mechanized agriculture; technological progress

V. Определите функцию инфинитива в данных предложениях. Пе реведите предложения на русский язык:

1. It is difficult to forecast which technique is likely to prove the most efficient and viable. 2. To plan the field pat tern and operations for more efficient agriculture is the task of the land use planner. 3. The interfarm land use planning is to meet the new requirements of the technological progress in agriculture. 4. The land use planners must con sider the location of the production units on the basis of cost-benefit analysis.

VI. Закончите следующие предложения, используя текст В:

1. Our aim is constantly to improve the living conditions of collective... .2. An adequate living area is needed for mod ern... . 3. What kind of maps should each master plan have? The maps that show... 4. The living area should not be lo cated too far from... . 5. The requirements of modern rural family living zone are paid... . 6. This zone must have enough place for a house, a garage and... . 7. The best conditions must be given to those who... .

VII. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

production unit; intensive cropping; harvesting equip ment; specialized farm building units; farm stock countryside; natural advantages; gardening

VIII. Запишите и выучите наизусть следующие глагольные сочетания. Употребите их в качестве вводных членов предложения. Запи шите предложения в тетрадь:

to tell the truth по правде говоря

to say the least мягко выражаясь

to make a long story short короче говоря

to put it simply попросту говоря

to put it another way иначе говоря

to begin with, to start with прежде всего

IX.Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова.Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. The progress of agricultural science and ... is a part of wider changes in agriculture. 2. Intensive livestock housing has been a consistent ... in many parts of our country. 3. It is difficult to forecast which ... is likely to be the most ef ficient and viable in the nearest future. 4. A growing communi ty needs new roads and ..., schools, public ..., water ..., sewers and so on. 5. The living area has to be ...not very far from the local road. 6. By its very nature ...is widely dispersed over the available land area.

X. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

1. В планировании сельскохозяйственного предприятия важно учесть фактор размещения жилого массива. 2. Не обходимо создать максимально хорошие условия для сель ских тружеников. 3. Для размещения жилого массива тре буется территория с благоприятной окружающей средой. 4. Производительность труда во многом зависит от условий, в которых живет сельский труженик.

XI. Определите, какими частями речи являются выделенные слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1.Internal land use planning also deals with allocation of living areas. 2. People living in rural communities need more favourable conditions for their life and public activity. 3. Now we can see great changes in agriculture. 4. Wise plan ned electrical power distribution greatly changes the life of the farmers. 5. It seems probable that within twenty years remote controlled fieldwork will be the norm. 6. You probably will be a good specialist of land use planning

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