I. Выучите новую лексику урока:
n 1. сохранение,
undermine v подрывать
предохранение; 2. заповедник prevent v предотвращать
utilization n использование excessive а чрезмерный
concept n концепция, leach v выщелачивать
общее представление endow v наделять, одарять
spoil v портить safeguard и охранять
conserve v сохранять, restoration n восстановление
предохранять; сберегать derelict а заброшенный (о земле);
destroy v разрушать, покинутый
уничтожать, истреблять waste v портить; напрасно
тра тить; истощать(ся)
II. Прочтите и переведите текст:
Land Resources Need Conservation
of land conservation may be defined as the preservation and better utilization
of land resources for pres ent and future generations. "Conserve" is
in contrast to "de stroy" or "waste". The idea of
conservation means that land resources should be used but used wisely.
sound and full use of land resources is secured by the State Land Use Control.
The land use planner is to discourage land uses that undermine the productive
capacity of land and to prevent the waste of land resources. Our wealth of land
resources must be used for the maximum benefit of people now and in future.
long tried primitive methods of land conservation. Excessive cultivation and
grazing destroyed the natural cov er, caused increased leaching and opened up
soils to more erosion danger.
conservation has become the prime concern of land use planners. The concept of
making use of nature involves applying scientific and technological achievements
to land conservation. The land fertility must be conserved and increased by
wise land uses. Here is an example of land con servation provided by the
Ministry of Agriculture of Ukrai ne.
endowed this land with vast wealth. But many of its resources, such as the
great iron-ore deposits near Kerch and Krivoi Rog, manganese near Nicopol and
coal in Donbas and Pridneprovye are hidden under fertile black earth. But
mining, especially when it is pit-mining, usually spoils the fertile land.
now no major mining centres in the country which are ignoring restoration of
soil fertility and after use of derelict land.
this is done in the Dnepropetrovsk Region is interesting. The earth over the
deposits is removed and stored in its original pattern, depending on the degree
to which it can be subsequently used in agricultural cultivation. The
worked-out pits are then filled according to a strict formula dead rock first,
then partially usable earth, and then, on top, the life-giving black earth.
ecological and soil systems have been created as far as fertility goes, they
are just as good as the natural ones. Reclaimed fields produce higher yields of
an average four tons winter wheat per hectare and even six in certain areas.
shows that conservation measures can and fre quently do pay off, particularly
when they represent wise land resources use overtime.
no instances in which a policy of safeguarding or even saving land resources is
not profitable. From the stand point of our needs land conservation programs
are always profitable.
III. Прочтите и переведите текст:
Three Dimensions of Land Conservation
conservation plays an important role in farming. The further intensification of
agricultural production needs a strong land resource base. The conservation of
land resources is realized within three dimensions physical, economic, and
legal. The land use planning both infarm and interfarm has to deal with these
physical dimension of land conservation is concerned with what is possible in
terms of land uses. It includes the kinds of plants needed for land
conservation, the yields of various plants, cultivation methods, applications
of water and ferti lizers and the rates of applying them.
conservation has a wide range of various practices, such as contouring, strip
cropping and mulching. It often needs capital investment in such workings as
terracing and water-retention structures. The planners have to investigate the
effects of these workings on crop yields, run-off, erosion, siltation,
infiltration, and the like.
of possibilities of land conservation is being extended constantly through
research and developments in science and technology. But before the
recommendations are made the planners consider the economic dimensions of proposed
measures. The economic dimensions of land conserva tion are constantly changing
through the changes in scientif ic and technological progress. They include
cost-benefit ana lysis, the amount of present and long-term benefits, costs of
productive factors, and relationship between labor and capital needed to
provide land conservation.
attention is given to legal dimensions of land conservation. The legal
dimensions consist of a set of rules and laws concerning land conservation.
use planner should be aware of all laws and rules which are reflected in the
Land Code. Legal provisions of land conservation should be further developed,
particularly concerning the conserva tion of prime or unique lands which are of
crucial importance to agriculture. The three dimensions of land conservation
must be con sidered and implemented through a sound land use plan.
It is hard
to overestimate the economic effects of land con servation. Land conservation
provides for additional farm production which is usually large enough to
off-set the added costs on land improvement.
IV. Определите без словаря значения следующих
contrast; State Land Use Control; primitive methods; human activities; black
earth; cultivation methods; an important role; intensification of agricultural
production; the yields of various plants
V. Прочтите предложения. В данных предложениях определите
функции причастий настоящего времени. Переведите предло жения на
department is studying the problems of land con servation. 2. The professor is
speaking on land problems and underlining the importance of land conservation.
3. By ap plying scientific and technological methods our specialists try to
improve soil productivity. 4. Trying primitive methods man has long dreamed of
land conservation. 5. Having planned reclamation measures the collective
farmers have given renewed life to a vast area of land. 6. The earth over the
de posits is removed and stored in its original pattern depending on the degree
of its use in agriculture.
VI. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и
control; productive capacity of land; excessive cultivation; iron-ore deposits;
reclaimed fields; future generation; partially usable earth; life-giving black
VII. Образуйте причастия настоящего времени от данных ниже
гла голов. Употребите 2-3 из них
в коротких предложениях:
to control, to discourage, to prevent, to leach, to cultivate, to make, to
provide, to endow, to create, to rep resent, to remove, to store, to graze
VIII.Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова. Переведите
предложения на русский язык:
"Conserve" is in ... to "destroy" or "waste". 2.
The util ization of land resources is ... by the State Land Use Control
service. 3. Excessive cultivation and excessive grazing usual ly ... the
natural land cover. 4. Land conservation is the prime .... of the Government.
5. The fertility of land must be ... and increased by wise land use. 6. Land
use planners ... many different environmental problems.
IX. Переведите с
русского языка на
1. Говоря об охране почв, необходимо прежде всего точ но
определить, какие мероприятия следует проводить и в каком порядке. 2. Большая
полезная работа по рекульти вации земель проводится в Украине. 3. На
восстановлен ных землях при правильном их использовании можно до биться высоких
урожаев. 4. Для землеустроителя чрезвы чайно важно учитывать все экономические
факторы в систе ме.
X. Определите, какими частями речи являются выделенные
слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1.То conserve land is the main task of
all the generations, present and future. 2. Land conservation means extremely
wise utilization of land resources. 3. By conserving land re sources we
increase the wealth of our nation. 4.Dreaming of land conservation man tried
many primitive methods of land preservation. 5. Man's dream of land
conservation is now coming true. 6. Excessive grazing destroys the natural land
cover. 7. Destroying the natural land cover by overgrazing we increase the
danger of soil erosion.