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Главная » Файлы » Английский язык » Уроки

LESSON 14. SOIL RESOURCES
Скачать с сервера ()  ·  28.08.2010, 23:45

I. Выучите новую лексику урока:

maintain v содержать, time v рассчитывать время; назначать время;

поддерживать, сохранять удачно выбиpaть время

abundant а обильный worsen v ухудшать(ся)

sustain v поддерживать, irreparable а непоправимый,

подкреплять невозвратимый

deterioration п порча, ухудшение destructive a разрушительный,

rapid а быстрый, скорый вредный

safeguard v 1. охранять, защищать; occur v случаться, происходить

2. гарантировать, обеспечивать recurrent а периодический,

повторяющийся

II. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text A. What is Soil Conservation?

Soil conservation is the application on the land of all necessary measures in proper combinations to build up and maintain soil productivity for efficient, abundant agricul tural production on a sustained basis.

Soil conservation, therefore, means proper land uses, pro tecting the land against all the forms of soil deterioration. It is rebuilding eroded and depleted soils, conserving moisture for plant use. It includes proper agricultural drainage and irrigation where needed and other measures which contribute to maximum practical yields and conserve the soils for fu ture uses all at the same time.

With proper management, most soil resources can be used and still retain their productive capacity over long periods of time. The problem of conserving these resources is thus one of accepting practices that permit their effective use while at the same time safeguarding their productive capacity over time. Soil conservation is a matter of good land use and management.

The State Land Use Planning provides a system of using and managing land based on the capabilities of the land itself, involving the application of the best measures or prac tices known, and designed to result in the greatest production without damage to the land. The State Land Use Control of Land Uses has to secure the wise uses of soil resources. The land users must show care in selecting their production prac tices so as to secure the practicable return. They also must show comparable care in choosing and timing the conserva tion investments and practices which are used to build up and maintain the productivity of soils.

The State Land Use Control provides the control of all the land uses. The land users should accept practices that do not damage the soils and permit their effective use. To build up and maintain the productivity of the soils is their prime concern.

A special problem arises with soil erosion. Rapid soil destruction means irreparable loss of land at least as far as cropping is concerned. Soil conservation is directed against the destructive effects of wind and water. The land use plan ners should keep the soils in such shape that they would re main productive as long as possible.

 

III. Прочтите и переведите текст:

Text B. Soil Erosion

Soil erosion effects food production through land degra dation. The damage of wind and water erosion is estimated by millions of dollars. Dust storms may occur in some southern land areas, recurrent drought also often re sults in soil erosion. The wind erosion of soils takes place in some drier sections of our country.

In wet areas the degradation of soils is linked with accel erated run-off and increased silt load of the rivers, worsened flood hazard along their lower courses and accumulation of coarse material (sand, gravel) on top of valuable soils.

The proper use of soil resources calls for measures to keep the soils from being destroyed by wind and water. The de velopment of techniques for extending the productive life of soils and for slowing down their rate of deterioration will bring the maximum use of these soils. Much may be done by land use planners.

The land resources of a farm may be actually reshaped in one way or another for better farming and leveled for more efficient irrigation, terraced to hold rainfall and strip cropped to save soil and water.

Poor or workout cropland can be converted to pasture or pasture to cropland. Many hectares of good rangeland must be wrested from worthless scrub and brush, reseeded, properly grazed, well watered.

The drains improve pasture and cropland. Ponds and marshes may be developed for wild life. A farm detention dam may be built and can catch and release safely what would otherwise be run-off of flood proportions.

The planners can project tree shelterbelts and strip crop ping for wind and water erosion control. These may be creat ed singly and in combinations. Modern techniques of land management must be put into operation for the sake of land conservation and increase the opportunities of the farms.

Changes in farming, developments in machinery, rising requirements of capital investment, the wide use of fertilizers and soil conservation practices call for many skills and techni cally sound practices of specialists of land use planning.

IV. Определите без словаря значения следующих словосочетаний:

soil conservation plan; eroded soil; agricultural drainage and irrigation; the problem of conserving land resources; effective use; wind and water soil erosion; efficient irrigation; water erosion control; modern techniques of land management

V. Запишите и выучите наизусть следующие причастия с относя щимися к ним словами. Употребите 4 из них в коротких предложениях в качестве вводных членов:

omitting all the details опуская все подробности

considering the situation учитывая положение

all things considered принимая во внимание все обстоя тельства

generally speaking вообще говоря

granting it to be true если это так

assuming that считая, что

allowing for принимая во внимание

not counting не считая

speaking of (for) говоря о

judging by судя по

beginning with начиная с

VI. Закончите предложения, используя текст В:

1. Food production is influenced by... . 2. Some southern land areas are the places where.... 3. Wind erosion takes place ... .4. In wet areas the degradation of soils is linked with... . 5. Ponds and marshes for wild life may be... .

 

VII. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

conservation investments; soil destruction; soil conserva tion programme; coarse material; shelterbelt; strip cropping; soil survey data; overgrazing;

VIII. Образуйте причастия настоящего времени от следующих глаголов. Переведите образованные причастия на русский язык, запишите их в тетрадь. Употребите 3-4 причастия в предложениях:

to apply, to maintain, to build, to mean, to conserve, to retain, to accept, to provide, to manage, to design, to dam age, to select, to return, to time, to direct, to occur, to keep, to develop, to implement, to involve, to help, to increase

IX. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Soil conservation also includes ... agricultural drainage and... . 2. With proper ... most soil resources retain their productive capacity over long periods of time. 3. Rapid soil destruction means ... loss of land. 4. The damage of wind and ... erosion is estimated by millions of dollars. 5. There are some measures to keep the soils from... . 6. Poor or workout cropland can be converted to... . 7. Tree shelterbelts and strip cropping are created for wind and water ... control. 8. Erosion control and moisture consideration practices fit into a well-rounded ... programme.

Х. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

1. Говоря об охране почв, необходимо четко определить меры, которые предпринимаются для этой цели. 2. Исполь зуя материалы, публикуемые в журнале "Природа", сту денты подготовили интересные доклады. 3. Рассказывая о методах борьбы с эрозией, специалисты использовали мно го цифровых данных.

XI. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделенные слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Soil conservation means proper land uses protecting the land against all the forms of soil deterioration. 2. Protec tion of soils from water and wind erosion is one of the main purposes of a soil conservation programme. 3. To protect soils from erosions means to solve the main problem of soil conservation.

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