I. Выучите новую лексику урока:
fix v укреплять, закреплять phenomenon n (р1 -mena) явление;
invade v 1. нарушать; 2. вторгаться; необыкновенное явление
3. посягать на чьи-л. права dominate v доминировать,
bog n болото, трясина преобладать
subsoil n подпочва alarm n тревога
relevant a 1. применимый, halt v останавливать
уместный; относящийся к делу; replenish v пополнять,
II. Прочтите и переведите текст:
Deserts of the XX Century
the use potentials so completely that land without it is almost useless for
agriculture. The deserts invade in many forms wind erosion, droughts and moving
sands. Quite often the advance is linked to the concentration of salts in the
soil and subsoil waters. Land conservation there fore means to halt the advance
of deserts. Relevant measures which involve applying scientific and
technological achieve ments to make use of deserts are well-known in Asia. The
land conservation involves also taking into account the desert's natural
planners believe that the prime condition for the development of arid zones is
to investigate the phenom ena occurring in them. To do this the scientists have
to watch systematically the natural indicators enabling us to forecast the
advance of the desert in good time.
signal of trouble is an increased concentration of salts in the soil and
subsoil waters. Then come changes in the vegetation cover. The vegetation thins
out, drought-resistant and salt-loving types of plants begin to dominate and
the biological productivity of the land falls. Wild animals leave. The final
and most alarming signal is declining health among the people living in the
A wealth of
information is now beginning to come in from outer space on the state of
pasture lands, and of artificial and natural water bodies. The space satellites
information makes possible the forecasting and avoidance of undesirable
phenomena caused by man's activities.
have also developed practical protec tive measures. Among them are mechanical
means, planting forest belts, grasses, and bushes, and using oil waste and pol
ymer film to halt the movement of the sands.
III. Прочтите и переведите текст:
Land Reclamation and Water Resources in Arid Areas
shortage of fresh water has the greatest influence on the entire natural
complex. But it operates in the arid areas more intensely than anywhere else.
That is why dealing with any economic problem in a desert begins with an
assessment of water resources for the sake of land reclamation.
wells are quite spread in Kazakhstan and the Central Asian Republics. The water
for the city of Shevchenko is obtained cheaply from an atomic desalting plant.
High-capacity irrigation systems operate in Turkmenia and Uz bekistan, getting
water from the Kara Kum and other canals.
Asia's biggest rivers, the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya, do not carry enough
water any more. So a new problem arose how to save the Aral Sea which will not
be able to replenish itself with water from the two rivers. The further
economic development of the lands of the Republics of Central Asia and
Kazakhstan will demand additional amounts of water.
use planners as well as many other specialists have developed a number of
projects for ways of bringing water to the deserts which will help to alter the
climate of vast areas.
obtaining the water is not enough. It must be used rationally. Today, between
15 and 30 per cent of the water in irrigation canals is lost in the Ferghana
Valley. These waters were the cause of appearance of salty bog lands. Cement or
clay solutions are being used to cover the walls of the canals, but these are
very expensive methods. Feeding water through pipelines is a new way of
combating water losses and the salination of surrounding territories. Sending
the water through flexible plastic pipes is especially effective.
water to the deserts in Central Asia and Kaz akhstan and developing new methods
of transporting it, land irrigation make it possible to protect the soil in
arid zones from salination and end the threat of wind erosion.
IV.Определите без словаря значения следующих словосочетаний:
Asian Republic; frost-free season; prime condition; arid zone; natural
indicators; increased concentration of salts; vegetation cover; salt-loving
types; biological productivity; wild animals; mechanical means; subtropical
plant; long growing season; location of cotton farms.
V. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание
на функции причастий прошедшего времени;
1. We must
have some soil maps made of the areas where cotton is grown. 2. Do you want
this area reclaimed? 3. He had his project completed. 4. They have this area
reclaimed. 5. They want their land information be supported by space data. 6.
These specialists have all their land use projects adopted.
VI. Закончите предложения, используя текст В:
entire natural complex has been influenced by... .2. An assessment of water
resources is the main problem in... .3. Where do high capacity irrigation... ?
4. Additional amounts of water will be... . 5. Bringing water to the deserts
will help .... 6. A new way of combating water losses and the salination of
surrounding territories is... . 7. Supplying water to the deserts in Central
Asia makes it possible to... .
VII. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующих слов и
subsoil waters; concentration of salts; drought-resistant crops; satellite
information; to stabilize sands; to replenish; virgin lands
VIII. Образуйте причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени от
дан ных глаголов. Употребите их попарно в 2-3 случаях. Объясните различие в их
to extend, to grow, to link, to involve, to in crease, to obtain, to cover, to
control, to reduce, to move, to reclaim, to improve
IX. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова. Переведите
предложения на русский язык:
all the cotton ... in the Central Asian Republics. 2. Cotton is grown in the
area with ... summers and long ... season. 3. The deserts invade in many forms
wind ..., drought and ... sands. 4. The first signal of trouble in the desert
is an increased ... of salts in the soil and subsoil waters. 5. The final and
most alarming signal is ... health among the people living in the area. 6. The
satellite information makes possible the forecasting of undesirable phenomena
... by man's activities. 7. Obtained water must be used... . 8. The walls of
canals must be ... with cement or clay solu tions.
X. Переведите с русского языка на английский:
1. У растений пустыни жесткие листья, которые препят ствуют
слишком быстрой потере воды. 2. Это книга, которая дает много фактов и примеров
того, как нужно охранять окружающую среду. 3. Было указано на практическую
важность внутризонального районирования, причем учи тывались изменения
природных условий не только с се вера на юг, но и внутри зон с запада на
XI. Определите, какими частями речи являются выделенные
слова. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
is grown in the Central Asian Republics . 2. To grow cotton crop you must have
an area with hot summer and long frost-free season. 3. Increasing the salt
concentration in the soil and subsoil waters you get some changes in the
vegetation cover. 4. To increase the con centration of salt in the soil and
subsoil waters means to change the vegetation cover of the area.